Tag Archives: Wisdom

Matthew McAffee’s “Creation and the Role of Wisdom in Proverbs 8”: A Review

Kevin L. Hester

Dr. Matthew McAffee, Provost at Welch College, presented one of the most compelling papers at the 2018 Theological Symposium sponsored by the Commission for Theological Integrity. His paper, entitled “Creation and the Role of Wisdom in Proverbs 8: What Can We Learn?” was one of two heavily exegetical papers presented as part of the program. In it, McAffee draws parallels between the personification of wisdom in Proverbs 8 with the Genesis account of creation. While he recognizes that the primary purpose of the exhortation to wisdom found in Proverbs 8 is not to provide didactic material on the nature and scope of creation, McAffee asserts that there are a number of implications that can be drawn from the text that have important ramifications for the process of creation, the textual criticism of the Old Testament, and the relationship of the Genesis creation account to other Near Eastern creation stories.

McAffee outlines the role of Wisdom in Proverbs 8 and connects it with the two other speeches from Wisdom in Proverbs including 1:20-36 and 9:1-6. The Proverbs 8 discussion is unique because of its reference to the creation of Wisdom before the foundation of the world. While he recognizes that the purpose of the passage is not to present a holistic theory of creation, he argues that the text’s apologetic argument for wisdom rests upon a particular understanding of creation.

McAffee provides robust lexical analysis on several Hebrew terms used in reference to creation. These are analyzed in their Biblical and Near Eastern contexts to clearly show that the author of the wisdom literature expresses an ex nihilo view of creation. He then demonstrates a number of lexical parallels between Proverbs 8 and the Genesis narrative which indicate the author’s resonance with the Genesis narrative.

McAffee’s interpretation of Proverbs 8 and his investigation of its parallels with the Genesis account of creation produce a revisionist conclusion that rejects, on the one hand, the critical consensus of any documentary hypothesis that views the wisdom literature as predating the composition of the Genesis narrative. On the other hand, his work also provides a compelling argument for distinguishing the Genesis account of creation from Babylonian and other Near Eastern creation stories. Thus, McAffee’s work here leads to three important implications.

First, the traditional canonical order of Genesis preceding the wisdom literature better explains the parallel between Proverbs 8 and the Genesis account. Otherwise, following the critical tradition’s dating of Proverbs prior to Genesis produces a significant anachronism wherein, “the presumed older text (Prov. 8) preserves a purportedly late Hellenistic view of creation, while the assumed younger text (Gen. 1) preserves a much earlier Babylonian one.” (p. 145)

Second, the purpose Wisdom’s pre-existent role in Proverbs 8 shows a vision of ex nihilo creation over against other near eastern creation accounts that image creation as the ordering of chaos or construction from pre-existent matter thus distinguishing the Biblical accounts. The text’s usage of the Genesis account, once established, demonstrates that the author of the wisdom literature is reading the Genesis account of creation as ex nihilo documenting a consistent view of creation that is distinctive and prior to other expressions of cosmogony.

If both the Genesis account and the vision of creation in the wisdom literature are consistent with one another and distinctive from other Near Eastern models, then this conclusion upends the commonly held belief that ex nihilo creation was a later, Greek idea incorporated into Judaism. Rather, God’s creation of all things from nothing seems to represent a longstanding Jewish belief.

Third, once the parallel between the creation accounts of Genesis and Proverbs 8 are established and the consistent view is demonstrated to be distinctive from later Greek expressions, the only remaining potential source for the Genesis narrative of creation is the Babylonian Atra Hasis account. This has been the traditional, critical approach. However, the distinctive approach to creation in the accounts from the Babylonian tradition and especially the ex nihilo reading of the Genesis account by the author of the wisdom literature raises real questions about this critical assumption. Such a position seems hardly tenable. Instead, it is more likely that the Atra Hasis and other near eastern creation models are either dependent upon the Genesis account or entirely separate from it.

Jeff Blair’s “Cultivating a Culture of Wisdom in the Local Church”: A Response

by Thomas Marberry

At the recent Theological Symposium held on the campus of Randall University in Moore, Oklahoma, Dr. Jeff Blair presented a paper entitled Creating a Culture of Wisdom in the Local Church. This essay was based on his recently-completed D.Min. thesis at Northern Seminary.

Blair begins his analysis by pointing out that many aspects of American culture, including our churches, have become decidedly youth-oriented. Contemporary culture favors new over old, innovation over tradition, revolution over preservation, and zeal over wisdom. Church programs are generally designed to appeal to specific age groups. Children and young people are seldom involved with adults in church programs; many churches even have separate worship services for children and youth. The net result is that church members of different age groups seldom worship together or participate in the same activities.

In this paper, Blair suggests that churches should reconsider this modern youth-oriented approach ministry. He suggests a return to a more biblically-based model which he labels “a culture of wisdom.” In a wisdom culture, the basic values are stability, order, continuity, productivity, and maturity. Much of the material in this essay is drawn from the exegesis of Scriptural passages such as Genesis 1-2, Proverbs 1-9, Matthew 11-13, 1 Corinthians 1-4, Colossians 1, and James. Blair argues that a different approach would provide more opportunities for younger people to spend time with and learn from older members of the congregation. They would do more things together.

Some of the ideas presented in this paper may be difficult for church leaders to hear, but they should be carefully examined and evaluated. Church programs that have been established for several years (including youth programs) should not be radically changed simply for the sake of change. Changes must be developed and implemented wisely and with the support of the congregation. Church leaders need to keep in mind that change does no good unless it puts the church in a better position to share the gospel with its community.

There are several aspects of Blair’s work that make it useful for churches. First and foremost, this essay presents a careful analysis of key Scripture passages that must guide and control the implementation of a program of wisdom. Second, this essay provides information that will assist a church to develop and implement a program of wisdom. Changes should not be made haphazardly; the church needs to develop a workable plan and strategy to implement a program of wisdom.

Third, this essay helps the modern reader to realize how much we can learn from the past. We cannot go back and live in the world of Biblical times, but there are many insights that are of eternal value. Fourth, this analysis stresses the importance of maturity. It emphasizes that the younger members of a congregation can learn much from their parents, grandparents, and the older members of the church.  Fifth, the wisdom model outlined in this essay promotes family solidarity. It suggests that families should worship together, learn together, and serve God together.

This is a paper that should be carefully read and studied by Free Will Baptists. We should always be open to ideas that can help us to minister more effectively in the modern world. A return to the wisdom practices of the Biblical world may help us to do that. There is, however, a word of caution that should be sounded: A culture of wisdom cannot be implemented quickly and easily in a local church; it will require time, effort, planning, and much prayer.